Taiwanese Information

The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, is a sovereign state in East Asia comprising the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands, which are located off the east coast of mainland China. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south.

The founding of the Republic of China began on 10 October 1911 as a result of the Wuchang Uprising, but it was not formally established until 1 January 1912. The ROC had once encompassed mainland China and Outer Mongolia. At the end of World War II, with the surrender of Japan, the Republic of China took over the island groups of Taiwan and Penghu from the Japanese Empire. After the end of the world war, the government drafted the Constitution of the Republic of China, which was adopted on 25 December 1947. When the Chinese Nationalist Party , the then leading party of the ROC, lost mainland China in the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China in 1949, the central government relocated to Taiwan, establishing Taipei as its provisional capital. Despite being forced out of mainland China, Chiang Kai-shek, the Nationalist leader, declared that the ROC was still the legitimate government of China and Outer Mongolia. In mainland China, the victorious Communist party founded the People's Republic of China. The Taiwan Area became the extent of the Republic of China's jurisdiction.

During the early Cold War the ROC was recognized by many Western nations and the United Nations as the sole legitimate government of China. It was a founding member of the United Nations and one of the five permanent members of the Security Council until 1971, when it was replaced by the PRC.

Wikipedia, Taiwanese, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_China (as of Apr 15, 2010)

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